What is an LCD Display and how it works? part 1

What is a Plasma Display and how does it work?

Advantages of LCD Displays

Resolution options

Video, Visual, and Imaging Expo

Audio Expo

What is HDMI Plasma and LCD Connections


What LCD Display and how it works?

2007 February


February 2007
A Closer Look At LCDs

LCD monitors and TVs are the fastest-growing display technology in the world.
Here's everything you need to know about how they work and how they're made.

Photo courtesy of LG. Philips LCD

Available in all shapes, sizes, and resolutions, liquid crystal displays (LCDs) are everywhere these days — from the screen on your notebook computer and the big-screen HDTV in your family room to the airline information screens at the airport and electronic menus at your local fast food joint. In fact, it seems like everyone and their brother is either manufacturing or selling LCD TVs, which are the most popular LCD product category for consumers.

Some of the brands you probably immediately recognize like Samsung, LG, and Sharp. Others you may have heard of include Westinghouse, Vizio, Polaroid, and Syntax Olevia. Then there are the companies, such as Chi Mei Optoelectronics and AU Optronics, you might not know at all. Yet all of these names are important in the world of LCD displays — from manufacturing to retailing.

Long time coming
LCD technology isn’t new. In fact, the first discoveries of liquid-crystal birefringence — the ability to split beams of light into two polarized planes — were made in the 1880s in Austria. In the 1950s and 1960s, RCA Corp. performed detailed research into liquid crystals, investigating the possibility that they could be the basis of a new lightweight, low-power display technology.

In the 1970s, after RCA discontinued its efforts, Japanese companies, spearheaded by Sharp and Casio, took the lead in commercializing LCDs, including monochrome calculators and watches. Color LCD screens made their debut in the 1980s, followed by overhead projection panels and notebook computers in the early 1990s, and small, low-resolution televisions.

For years, the largest LCD TVs and monitors couldn’t exceed 30 inches without manufacturing sleight-of-hand, such as precision stitching of smaller panels to achieve larger sizes. The real breakthroughs came about the turn of the 21st century when the first one-piece, 40-inch diagonal LCD panels were introduced.

Today, single-cut LCD panels with diagonal sizes of 108 inches have been shown, and 1080p LCD HDTVs as large as 52 inches are available at retail for less than $4,000. To put things in perspective, Sharp’s 28-inch LCD monitor from 1999 — a breakthrough product at the time — was priced at $15,000!

In recent years, prices have dropped so fast on LCD HDTV products that it’s causing major headaches for well-known brands. What’s behind this downward price pressure? Lots and lots of manufacturing capacity, particularly in Taiwan and China. In less than a decade, LCDs have gone from an expensive niche technology to ubiquitous. Many analysts even predict they’ll kill off the venerable cathode-ray tube (CRT) in the near future.

How they work
LCDs aren’t particularly complex. Here’s how twisted nematic (TN) liquid crystals (commonly used in computer monitors and small electronics) switch light.

In an individual pixel, TN liquid crystals rotate in response to changes in voltages applied across the cell. When no voltage is present, the individual TN crystals float in a random fashion, and any polarized light passing through the cell is unimpeded. However, when the TN crystals start to align themselves with an increase in voltage, less polarized light can pass through. At full operating voltage, the TN crystals assume their characteristic alignment pattern, and virtually all rays of light are blocked from passing through the cell.

As a result, we wind up with a display that may appear to be “on” when it’s actually “off” and vice versa! As a real-world analogy, look at a window blind, which passes more or less light depending on how you align the individual slats.

Unlike plasma displays, which essentially operate the same way no matter who the manufacturer is, there are several different LC alignment modes. Some of these modes shutter light in an opposite manner from TN and its variations. All of them promise high image contrast and wide viewing angles — both of which have been a real challenge for LCD display manufacturers.

In addition to TN liquid crystals, there are variations called super twisted nematic (STN) and triple super twisted nematic (TSTN). While TN LC displays have been around for a long time, more sophisticated alignment structures have recently come into existence.

One is patterned vertical alignment (PVA), where the individual liquid crystals align in a vertical orientation when blocking light. As voltage is applied, the liquid crystals shift to a horizontal alignment, and the degree of that shift determines how much light passes through each cell. There’s also a super PVA variation coming to market (see sidebar below).

Another popular system is in-plane switching, where the liquid crystals align parallel to the surfaces of the cell when the pixel is off. As voltage is applied, the individual crystals rotate on axis up to 90 degrees while remaining parallel to the cell walls, passing light. A more advanced version of this LC alignment, known as super in-plane switching (S-IPS), is in wide use for consumer LCD HDTVs.

Yet a third alignment structure starts with the liquid crystals arrayed in a circle, standing vertically like a row of bowling pins. These LCs tip over in a circular pattern when energized. This system is known as continuous pinwheel alignment (CPA), because the individual LCs resemble a pinwheel or daisywheel when switched fully on.

Out of the oven
The secret to making LCDs is in the liquid crystal paste. This stuff, most of which comes from chemical giant Merck KGaA of Darmstadt, Germany, is a paste that contains those tiny little light shutters. (One industry veteran I interviewed for this article likened it to peanut butter.) Merck’s brand name for it is Licristal, and it’s available in numerous formulations, depending on the desired LC alignment.

For example, Merck makes six different LC formulations for small, low-voltage LCD screens, such as those found in PDAs, iPods, notebook PCs, and digital cameras. Four different recipes for IPS and S-IPS LCD fabrication are available, while there are five choices for PVA and ASV manufacturers.

The second most important part of the equation is the actual glass material used to form the support structures for the individual TFT-controlled cells and color filters, not to mention the polarizers. And the lion’s share of that glass comes from Corning, which developed a special fusion process to make suitable LCD glass (EAGLE2000) that is transparent, thermally stable over a wide range of temperatures, and very strong.

Corning makes LC glass in many locations around the world, including the United States, Japan, and Korea. To reflect the growing importance of LCD manufacturing in China, Corning has opened a facility in Taiwan and announced in December of 2006 that a new LCD glass facility would be constructed near Beijing.

The glass isn’t particularly thick — typically only 0.7 mm for large LCD fabrication lines (fabs, for short.) So extreme care must be taken when moving these “motherglass” sheets, some of which measure as large as 7.9 feet by 7 feet (Generation 8 fab dimensions)!

To see how these raw materials are made into a finished 42-inch LCD panel for a consumer HDTV set, let’s follow the finishing steps inside a Gen 7 LCD fab, such as LG.Philips LCD’s Paju, Korea facility. (LG.Philips defines Gen 7 “motherglass” size as 2,250 mm by 1,950 mm, or 7.4 feet by 6.4 feet by 0.028 inches.)

Step 1 – TFTs: The super-small thin film transistors (TFTs) used to control individual LC cells, or pixels, must be formed onto a glass substrate. Ultra-thin chemical films are microdeposited and shaped using chemical vapor deposition into semiconductors, with additional etching to apply electrodes made from an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) alloy.

There are three separate color (red, green, and blue) sub-pixels in every imaging pixel that must be formed, and this process requires four to five different masks, depending on the size of the panel. As small and transparent as the TFT is, it still blocks some light through the pixel. The ratio of unblocked to blocked area is known as the pixel’s aperture ratio.

Pixel density is measured in pixels per inch (PPI) — with 100 PPI a common resolution for large-screen LCD monitor panels. It’s possible to increase that density even more — LCD HDTVs with screens as small as 37 inches diagonally are widely available with full 1920x1080 pixel resolution. That’s a total of 6,220,800 sub-pixels!

Step 2 – Color Filters: While the TFTs are being formed in one building, another piece of glass the same size and thickness is being coated with color filters in another building nearby. These color filters — liquid pigments — are precisely microdeposited and rapidly cured. (Some LCD manufacturers are now experimenting with inkjet deposition of pigments.)

The choice of color pigments depends on the application, so an LCD panel destined to become a consumer TV set will have a different mix of red, green, and blue than a computer monitor. Color pigments are also chosen carefully with backlights in mind. One cold-cathode backlight unit (CCFL) may accentuate brightness and bluish colors at the expense of skin tones, while another is better suited for watching movies.

Step 3 – LC Paste: The color filter and TFT processes are parallel operations. Once both sides of the LCD module are complete, the two pieces must be bonded together with the desired LC compound inside. The liquid crystals can be injected into a finished LC cell, but a more common approach with large LCD glass is to apply the LC paste precisely to each TFT pixel before bonding.

This “one drop filling” technique was originally known as VALC, or vacuum aligned liquid crystals, first developed in LG.Philips LCD’s Gen 5 LCD fab. VALC sped up LC application for large displays by more than 50 times.

Once the LC paste is applied to each individual cell, a powerful epoxy bond holds the color filter arrays and TFT glass together, creating the physical pixel structures.

Step 4 – Final Assembly: At this point, the LCD is almost complete. All it needs is assembly and attachment of the polarizing filters, attachment of the backlight unit, which can be a cold-cathode or hot-cathode fluorescent lamp or even a light-emitting diode, and attachment of wiremold connectors and driver integrated circuits to all TFT electrodes. The LCD panel will also be installed into some sort of housing.

All told, there are six “layers” to a finished LCD panel — the backlight unit (BLU), then the first polarizer (which throws away half the light out of necessity), followed by the TFT array. Next comes the liquid crystal layer, bounded on the other side by the color filter glass. The second polarizer, closest to your eye, completes this liquid crystal sandwich.

It takes about one to two weeks at LG.Philips LCD’s Paju plant to produce a finished piece of “motherglass” after Steps #1 through #3.

What’s next?
New facilities like the LG.Philip’s Paju plant can perform Steps #1 through #3 without having to cut the “motherglass” sheet, unlike some other facilities. This speeds up production considerably.

Further process improvements will allow bigger glass cuts to be made. Sharp is now operating a Gen 8 fab in Shizuoka, Japan, from which it makes 46-inch and 52-inch LCD modules for use in HDTVs. Corning is the primary supplier of glass sheets for this facility, using a newly developed glass substrate (EAGLE XG), free of all heavy metals and halides, according to a company press release.

Could we see Gen 9 and 10 fabs? Certainly, but the only practical reason a manufacturer might go to those larger sizes is to increase capacity for and reduce the costs of existing panel sizes, not necessarily to make larger LCD panels and modules.

How big can they go? Back in the spring of 2006, LG.Philips LCD showed a 100-inch LCD HDTV from the Paju factory. That particular glass size would be very costly to commercialize, and the market economics just don’t make sense — HDTVs measuring less than 50 inches diagonally are where the money is these days.


Samsung’s PVA Technology
When it comes to liquid crystal alignment patterns, there’s more than one path to follow. Samsung SSI manufactures LCD monitors and HDTVs on its jointly owned Gen 7-1 and wholly owned 7-2 lines in Tangjeong, Korea, using vertically aligned (VA) liquid crystal compounds, also made by Merck KGaA.

The Samsung process is actually known as patterned-ITO vertical alignment (PVA), and it gets its name by the characteristic tilt of the individual liquid crystals as they move to shutter light. The crystals stand at 90-degree angles to the pixel walls when switched off, and tilt toward the horizontal when switched on. The effect resembles bowling pins falling over. The degree of tilt is what provides the variable light shutter.

A newer version of PVA, known as super patterned vertical alignment (S-PVA), is claimed to deliver higher contrast and wider viewing angles than PVA. It fits eight liquid crystals per pixel instead of the four used with PVA technology.

Samsung ‘s Gen 7 lines start with 1870 mm x 2200 mm (74 inch by 87 inch) motherglass to produce S-PVA LCD modules for TV, from 23-inch (24 per substrate), 26-inch (18 per substrate) and 32-inch (12 per substrate) to 40-inch (eight per substrate) and 46-inch (six per substrate).


Pete Putman is a contributing editor for Pro AV and president of ROAM Consulting, Doylestown, PA. Especially well known for the product testing/development services he provides manufacturers of projectors, monitors, integrated TVs, and display interfaces, he has also authored hundreds of technical articles, reviews, and columns for industry trade and consumer magazines over the last two decades. You can reach him at pete@hdtvexpert.com.



The United States Display Consortium was established in July of 1993 as a partnership created from public and private industry. The Consortium provides a neutral forum for flat panel manufacturers, developers, users, equipment and material suppliers.
USDC's mission is to support our member companies and affiliates in building a world-class competitive display industry.

We're accomplishing this mission by:
1.  Supporting and developing an infrastructure for supply of next generation process equipment, materials and components to the worldwide markets;
2.  Analyzing, benchmarking, and reporting on commercial and military market trends and opportunities;
3.  Presenting member views on issues such as public policy and standards;
4.  Providing opportunities for member participation in technical and financial forums;
5.  Fostering international cooperation among display makers, integrators, and equipment materials and components suppliers;
6.  Facilitating and leveraging relationships between member companies and academic communities.
7.  Promoting innovation and opportunities in display applications through various media outlets.

We invite you to take a tour of the USDC website, and explore our unique industry/government partnership.


Resolution options: Your basic choices for native, or true resolution are the following:

VGA, or "640 x 480" – This is the lowest data resolution currently on the market, and usually the least expensive.
SVGA, or "800 x 600" – This is a popular resolution today, because most notebook computers are SVGA. Matching the plasma resolution with the computer resolution will produce the best results.
XGA, or "1,024 x 768" - XGA plasma tvs are generally more expensive, and are the second most popular resolution format. Many of the newest products are coming out in XGA. They are getting more popular as prices drop and the use of XGA notebook computers increases.
SXGA, or "1,280 x 1,024" – SXGA products are high resolution, and notably more expensive than XGA. These products are targeted for high end personal computer users and low end workstation users. They are used primarily for command and control, engineering and CAD/CAM applications where acute resolution of small details is important.
UXGA, or "1,600 x 1,200" – UXGA is for very high resolution workstation applications that are detail or information intensive. These are expensive plasma tvs that support a broad range of computer equipment. Relatively few products on the market have this native resolution.

Native Resolution
The number rows of horizontal and vertical pixels that create the picture. The native resolution describes the actual resolution of the plasma display and not the resolution of the delivery signal. When the delivery format is higher or lower than the flat screen's native pixel resolution, the delivery signal will be converted to the plasma's native resolution through an internal converter. Generally, the closer the incoming picture signal is to the native pixel resolution on the plasma display monitor - the better the picture. For example, a VGA computer signal of 853X480 will match up perfectly with a plasma monitor with 853X480 native pixel resolution, while an XVGA signal of 1024X768 will match up better with a plasma monitor that has the higher resolution of 1024X1024. There are more considerations here that deal with the quality of the internal converter/scalar, and also whether or not the monitor is progressively scanning (853X480) or interlacing the signal (1024X1024). All 42" inch plasma display monitors are HDTV ready, while none will show the true HDTV signals of 1080i. However, they will benefit from the better signal and show something very close.

The options available for native resolution include: 1024x1024, 1024x768, 1280x768, 1365x768, 640x480, 825x480, 853x480.

Benefits of Higher Resolution: High resolution plasmas are able to show more picture details than low resolution plasma tvs. Also, since there are more pixels used to make the image, each individual pixel is smaller, so the pixels themselves become less visible on the screen. However, you will pay more for higher resolution. So choosing the right resolution is the first step in finding the right plasma screen tv.

Please view our DTV and HDTV comparison chart for further digital tv information.

Digital television, or DTV, is the new industry standard for broadcasting picture and sound using digital signals, allowing for dramatic improvements in both picture and sound quality vs. conventional NTSC analog programming. DTV programming can be delivered in either of two basic formats: standard analog definition (SDTV) or high definition (HDTV).


DTV Format Comparison
Transmission Type
Analog Digital Digital Digital Digital
  NTSC Standard Definition Standard Definition High Definition High Definition
Maximum Resolution 480i 480i 480p 720p 1080i
Aspect Ratio 4:3 4:3 4:3 or 16:9 16:9 16:9
Channel Capacity 1 5-6 5-6 1-2 1
Description Standard TV as we know it today Good Picture and Sound —DVD or DBS Quality Better, depending on source; can be outstanding Best Possible Best Possible

HDTV is the highest form of digital television, delivering up to 1,080 interlaced scan lines. HDTV produces images that far surpass any you've ever seen in a home environment! SDTV, or Standard Definition, also represents a dramatic improvement over today's TV, with the added benefit of allowing stations to broadcast multiple programs within the same bandwidth as an HDTV signal.


DTV Format Detail
Scan Lines
Scan Rate Pixelization Frame Rate Aspect Ratio Formats
SDTV 525 total
480 active
15.75 kHz (60i) 480 x 640 24p, 30p, 60p or 60i fps 4:3 4
525 total
480 active
31.5 kHz (60p) 480 x 704 24p, 30p, 60p or 60i fps 4:3 or 16:9 8 (4x2)
HDTV 750 total
720 active
45 kHz
720 x 1080 24p, 30p, 60p 16:9 3
1125 total
1080 active
33.75 kHz
1080 x 1920 24p, 30p, 60i 16:9 3

The right distance depends on the size of your TV:

  • For 20 to 27-inch displays, you should be able to watch comfortably from 2.5 to 5 feet away.
  • For 32 to 37-inch TVs, you should sit back 6 to 8 feet from the screen itself.
  • For 42 to 46-inch TVs, you'll need 10 to 14 feet between you and the screen.
  • 50-inch LCD displays look best when viewed from 12 to 16 feet away.


What are the advantages of LCD Displays?

To help you find the best LCD screen for your application, we've put together this guide to the features you should look out for. You'll find most of these features listed for each screen we sell under the Buy section.

Reviewer: Jack Burden

Besides looking cool and oh-so futuristic in your living room, what are the advantages of owning an LCD TV or monitor?

It's easier to watch. Flat panel TV displays like LCDs and Plasmas are significantly brighter and feature higher contrasts than traditional CRT sets. Which means that an LCD TV will perform exceedingly well under most ambient light conditions. A brightly lit room won't wash out its picture, nor will lamplight cause a glare on your television screen. The beauty of these flat screens is that you don't have to turn out the lights to see the image clearly and easily. Nor do you have to worry about eyestrain, since neither LCDs nor Plasmas flicker the way old-fashioned TVs do.

And, you can watch TV from almost anywhere in a room since flat-screen LCD television displays can have up to a 160° viewing angle, which means your TV will look good when viewed from any point 80° in either direction from the center of the display.

One issue affecting the overall quality of the picture reproduced on LCDs has to do with dot pitch. This term refers to the distance between subpixels of the same color in adjoining pixel triads. The closer these "dots" are to one another, the sharper the resolution will be. This is especially true when displaying computer signal images and graphs. And the picture in front of you will be more realistic and detailed. Higher dot pitches also increase the viewing angles of LCD panels. Since dot pitch is measure in millimeters (mm), a good rule of thumb is this: Smaller dot pitches make for sharper images. You generally want a dot pitch of .28mm [" 10,000 pixels/in2 of your display] or finer.

Note: Plasma TV displays have long been touted as having wider viewing angles than comparably sized LCD monitors. But recent improvements in quality have made LCD televisions and monitors comparable to Plasma TVs with respect to their viewing angles. According to Sharp, a leading manufacturer of LCDs, the newest generation of LCD displays have just as good viewing angles as plasma sets, but this is only true of the better brands. In any event, even the best LCD monitors have yet to achieve the breadth of viewing angles found on typical Plasma monitors.

You can watch your new television right out of the box because the tuner is included. LCD TVs generally come with tuners and speakers already built in, so they're more or less plug-and-play devices. Since most LCD TVs don't require external tuning devices, they are ideal for smaller applications, where space is at a premium (like bedrooms and small living rooms) or where clutter is inconvenient (like crowed kitchen countertops).

Note: Some LCD televisions have outboard media receivers, though many-like Toshibas-don't. Always inquire about extra hardware before you buy: You won't always see your LCD monitor pictured with an external receiver (even if it has one), so it's up to you to find out whether there is any "extra" hardware you need to know about.

The picture is smooth, colorful, and (best of all) wide. LCDs have none of those annoying scan lines that conventional sets do. This owes to the fact that each subpixel has its own transistor electrode, which creates smooth, evenly lit images across the entire surface of the display. It also enables these displays to reproduce images that are saturated with color. [256 shades of red x 256 shades of green x 256 shades of blue " 16.8 million different colors!]

Note: All this requires an enormous number of transistors-upwards of 2.4 million for displays supporting a typical resolution of, say, 1024x768. This means that, if there is a problem with any one of these transistors, a subpixel will be affected, which causes the pixel associated with it to fail. Dead pixels will emerge over time and with use. In general, though, the number of dead pixels affecting a given display will be few enough so as to go virtually unnoticed by the average viewer.

Recent advances in LCD technology have markedly increased the response time of these displays, resulting in even smoother on-screen presentations. One way to think about response time is in terms of the amount of time it takes a pixel to "refresh" itself-i.e., to go from being active to being inactive, which is to say, ready to be re-activated). Response time is measured in milliseconds (ms), with the best LCD monitors now clocking in with response times under 20ms. Slower response times (>20ms) can cause the image on the panel to lag and appear jerky, an effect known as "streaking" or "trailing." Another phenomenon associated with slower response times is "ghosting." This occurs when the display is made to switch quickly from light to dark states (or vice-versa). In these instances, on-screen images may appear to stay on the screen belatedly.

LCD displays come either with a 16:9 aspect ratio (i.e., 16 units wide to 9 units high), the proper one for viewing HDTV and for watching DVDs, or with a 4:3 aspect ratio, the norm for most broadcast television shows. If you opt to go with a widescreen (16:9) display, does this mean that you'll have to watch some shows where the image is distorted or stretched unnaturally? No. When displaying a "normal" or 4:3 picture image from satellite, VCR, or cable TV, the image can be viewed in a number of ways-in its original format (with black or gray bars on the sides of the screen), or in "full" mode (where the image is converted or "stretched" using specially designed algorithms to reduce the visible stretch marks as much as possible). Again, the quality of the picture produced under such circumstances depends largely on the quality of the television with which you scale-up 4:3 pictures or scale-down 16:9 ones. Nevertheless, this is only a temporary dilemma: Since HDTV is shown in widescreen, this is the format of the future for much of broadcast television.

The display is multi-functional and long-lived. An LCD is a television monitor, capable of displaying HDTV, regular TV, and home video. It's also a computer monitor. In fact, it can accept any video format. LCD displays typically include inputs for (a) composite video, (b) S-video and component video, and (c) one or more RGB inputs from a computer. Because of the high resolution of LCDs, text and graphics look especially sharp when viewed on them, which makes them the best solution for displaying data and web-based content.

Note: Some LCDs (including many by Sharp) do not come with RGB inputs. If you plan to utilize your LCD display as a computer monitor, be sure to check out the specs of the unit you're thinking of purchasing.

You can expect to use your LCD monitor in many capacities for many years: The average lifespan of one of these displays is 60,000 hours. If watching TV was your full-time job, and you did it 24 hours a day, it would take you almost 7 years to wear out your LCD display. With more normal viewing habits of, say, 8 hours per day, you can extend the lifespan of your TV by a decade or more (to about 20 years)!

Note: The lifespan of an LCD display is generally longer than that of similar-sized plasma displays. Some manufacturers claim that their LCDs can last upwards of 80,000 hours when used continuously under controlled conditions (e.g., in a room with "standard" lighting conditions and 77° temperatures throughout). Just how realistic such claims are is debatable. After all, whose living room has no windows and remains at a perfectly comfortable 77 degrees year-round?

A more immediate concern is the actual lifespan of the light source in your LCD. This is perhaps THE critical component of your display unit. It is particularly important for maintaining a proper white balance on your TV. As these florescent bulbs age, colors can become unbalanced, which could result in too much red, for example, in your picture. So, it pays to buy name-brand displays. You will definitely pay more for better LCD display brands like Sharp, Toshiba, JVC, or Sony than you will for cheap Chinese or Korean variety knock-offs, but you'll get a backlighting bulb of higher quality and, in the end, a TV whose colors will stay truer longer.

In some cases, the warranty for this particular feature can be shorter than for the display as a whole. This means you might have to buy a whole new LCD monitor because the coverage on its backlight has expired. Moreover, some bulbs can be replaced, while others are built in to the unit itself. You should definitely do some research on the backlighting system, how it's configured, and how it's warranted.


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We have successfully supported Conventions and Trade Shows for over 20 years.

You get all this with outstanding Service, Trained Support Personal, and Competitive Pricing.


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